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Accessibility in the build phase is addressed by developing to current accessibility standards, following accessibility best practices and checks, and ensuring system usability with assistive technologies. Ultimately, accessibility in this phase requires the commitment of project team members to account for development awareness and validation when a system is constructed.

In addition to roles and responsibilities as defined in the system development life cycle (SDLC):

An analyst should:

  • Create a Test Management Plan that is aligned with a WCAG 2.0 level AA

A developer should:

  • Use WAI-ARIA states and properties to support platform accessibility APIs
  • Perform the "Department of Rehabilitation 16 Point Check for Accessibility"
  • Ensure non-text content presented to the user has a text alternative
  • Ensure the system is usable with assistive technologies


Design | Build | Test | Implement




What to do

How to do it

Use WAI-ARIA states and properties to support platform accessibility APIs. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) Guidelines
Ensure the system is usable with assistive technologies.

Ignore images using HTML

Ignore background images or decorative content using CSS

Use headings such as h1, h2, and h3 consistently to inform users and Assistive Technologies of importance of information

Examples of Heading use

Provide text alternatives for all non-text content.

Provide short descriptions that serve the same purpose

Provide short descriptions with long description alternatives

Provide alternatives for time-based media.

For audio and video content, create transcripts that are provided with the media

Example of transcript usage

For video content, add closed captioning that includes speech and descriptions of visuals

Example of Closed Captioning

Ensure content is appropriate and logically marked up.

Keep content concise and to the point. Tag content using web best practices.

Provide descriptive headings

Provide descriptive labels

Use color and visual images appropriately.

Use CSS to apply color focus

Ensure all website functionality is available from the keyboard.

Use standard HTML form controls and link elements

Use the California State template built-in classes and fonts

Provide users enough time to read and use content.

Provide a checkbox that allows users to ask for longer session time limit or no session time limit

Provide a way for the user to turn the time limit off

Allow the content to be paused and restarted

Avoid timers wherever possible

Identify inappropriate flashing content.

Avoid the use of Flash, GIFs, flashing and blinking content whenever possible.

Example of the 3 blink threshold

Content organization for optimum usability.

Provide a "skip to main content" element at the beginning of a web page for Assistive Technologies.

Example of Bootstrap "Skip to main content"

Use headings such as h1, h2, and h3 consistently to inform users and Assistive Technologies of importance of information

Examples of Heading use

Examples of Bootstrap Nested Headings

Ensure web pages have appropriate titles.

Give web pages descriptive titles that help users find content, orient themselves within it, and navigate through it. Descriptive titles allow users to identify what Web page they are using and to tell when the Web page has changed.

Examples of descriptive titles

Make navigation order logical.

Place important and popular content on the top of web pages. This will reduce the amount of content an Assistive Technology will need to read through.

Use section headings to organize content

Use page breadcrumbs on all web pages to allow for easy navigation and site location awareness. The State Template uses a built-in breadcrumb class which will automatically place page titles in a logical order.

Using the Bootstrap breadcrumb class

Make sure web pages have meaningful hyperlinks.

Links should describe what users can expect to find when they click on the link.

Links should be kept short and concise.

Avoid using "click here." Screen reading technologies will read the text aloud and will have no meaning when read out of context.

Do not use URLs as link text. URL's can be long and difficult to read.

Make keyboard focus is visible.

When using the keyboard to navigate, link order should be logical and visually identify what is being selected.

Ensuring keyboard control for all functionality

Identify language.

Language should be identified at the top of the page with the following tag.

html lang="en"

Use Language HTML attributes

Make web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.

Bring familiarity to web pages for users by:

Using labels, names, and text alternatives consistently throughout web pages.

Keeping navigational elements consistent throughout web pages.

Provide input assistance to help users avoid and correct mistakes.

Assist users with text notifications for required fields.

Provide instructions for functionality.

Provide text descriptions of specific data formats required for input.